ūüéČ We're live on the iOS app store

Signal vs. Noise: A Simple Guide

Learn how to differentiate between important information and noise to increase productivity and efficiency. Simply put, noise is what you need to ignore, and the signal is what you need to hear.
Shiva Prabhakaran
Writer at Routine
Published on
June 10, 2024

Signal vs. Noise is a helpful metaphor for work and life in general when dealing with information. But before we get into the metaphor, it would help to define the critical terminology here:

  1. Signal: meaningful information that you're trying to detect.
  2. Noise: random, unwanted variation or fluctuation that interferes with the signal

Simply put, noise is what you need to ignore, and the signal is what you need to hear.

This is a pretty interesting concept that we at Routine thought would benefit knowledge workers. So let's jump in.

Example of Signal v Noise

Suppose you are the CEO of a company; In which case, there will be a lot of information coming your way‚ÄĒeverything from the latest negative review of your product to your most cherished employee flirting with the competition.

If you were to ask the person/ department that delivered the news, you'll end up with the impression that every piece of information you get should be deemed necessary, but you know they are not.

Also, if we were to apply the Pareto principle, 80% of the information would not give us the results proportional to the effort needed to act upon it.

Some of the information you receive are signals worth acting upon, while others are random variations that interfere with the signals, a.k.a noise.

Your latest negative review, while relevant, might not necessarily impact your business as much as your top employee getting courted by your competition

Hence, it becomes paramount that you distinguish between what is essential and what is just noise.

Here are some more examples to help determine signal vs noise.

Financial Markets

  • ‚ÄćSignal: Over time, a consistent upward trend in a company's stock price.
  • Noise: Short-term fluctuations in the stock price due to daily market volatility.

In this example, the long-term trend of increasing stock price represents the signal that the company is performing well. Short-term price fluctuations, influenced by market noise, might obscure this underlying trend.

Health Monitoring

  • ‚ÄćSignal: A gradual decrease in a person's weight over several months.
  • Noise: Day-to-day weight variations due to factors like water retention, meal consumption, etc.

In health tracking, the meaningful signal is the overall trend of weight loss. The noise consists of minor weight fluctuations that can happen daily and aren't reflective of the person's actual progress.

Climate Change

  • ‚ÄćSignal: A consistent rise in global average temperatures over several decades.
  • Noise: Year-to-year temperature variations caused by natural weather patterns.

Climate change is indicated by the long-term increase in temperatures, which is the signal of the Earth's warming. The annual temperature fluctuations due to weather patterns represent the noise that can mask the overall trend.

Online Marketing Campaigns

  • ‚ÄćSignal: A steady increase in website traffic and conversions over a few months.
  • Noise: Daily fluctuations in website visits due to factors like holidays, weekends, or random spikes in traffic.¬†

In this case, the signal is the positive trend of increasing website engagement. Daily variations in traffic, influenced by various factors, are the noise that can distract from the campaign's overall effectiveness.

Educational Assessment

  • ‚ÄćSignal: Consistent improvement in a student's test scores over multiple exams.
  • Noise: A temporary drop in performance on a single test due to illness or external stress.

The signal indicates the student's learning progress over time. A single low score caused by temporary factors is the noise that doesn't accurately represent the student's overall learning trajectory.

Why do we consume noise?

We are wired to consume a lot of noise when we sense that we may discover an extra ounce of signal. 

So our instinct is at war with our capacity for making sense.

There is also this interesting theory put forward by Taleb, where he argues that by sampling an information source very frequently, we will likely end up seeing more noise than signal.

"The more frequently you look at data, the more noise you are disproportionally likely to get (rather than the valuable part called the signal); hence the higher the noise to signal ratio." - Mr. Nassim Taleb

Beyond the psychological and cognitive strains produced by what we call information overload, there is a point in intellectual inquiry where adding more information decreases understanding rather than increasing it.

Handling Signal vs. Noise

To effectively handle the problem of Signal vs. Noise, it's essential to adopt a discerning approach. Here's a breakdown of the critical points in the provided text:

  1. Emphasis on Substantial Changes: Not every change or data point requires immediate attention. Focusing on substantial changes or shifts in data or conditions helps avoid getting overwhelmed by trivial fluctuations. This approach allows you to allocate resources and efforts where they truly matter.
  2. Contextualizing Data: Taking a broader view of the situation is important. In the context of product development, a single bad review might not be as significant if evaluated within the larger framework of long-term progress. It's important to consider whether an event is an isolated one or part of a larger pattern.
  3. Avoiding Overreaction: Reacting impulsively to every bit of negative feedback can be counterproductive. Acknowledging that not all problems require immediate intervention prevents unnecessary stress and resource drain. Not every piece of information carries equal weight in decision-making.
  4. Resource Allocation:¬†Allocating resources‚ÄĒsuch as time, manpower, and attention‚ÄĒis a limited commodity. Addressing every minor issue or piece of noise can be resource-intensive and inefficient. Focusing on signals ensures that your efforts are directed towards the most impactful areas.
  5. Distinguishing Signals from Noise: Some events or changes are more significant than others. For instance, the departure of a critical team member, like a skilled developer, can have far-reaching consequences. Such events are signals that demand attention and action.
  6. Awareness and Perception: Developing a keen awareness helps in identifying meaningful signals. Experienced individuals have a natural ability to recognize what matters and what doesn't. This perception is honed over time and allows for more effective decision-making.


it's important to shift our attention towards identifying and analyzing significant changes in the data or conditions we are observing. Instead of getting caught up in the noise, we should look for substantial shifts or meaningful deviations that are likely to have a substantial impact on the overall situation.

This approach enables us to filter out the distractions and focus on the factors that truly matter, allowing us to make more accurate and insightful decisions based on the genuine signal within the data.

By doing so, we can navigate through the complexities of information and make more effective choices.

Thanks for reading. We hope this post was helpful; follow us on Twitter for more.

About the author
Shiva Prabhakaran

Shiva is a subject matter expert in communication, marketing, productivity, and learning systems. He has previously contributed to many blogs and newsletters, including Validated, Mental Models, HackerNoon, and several brands. You can find Shiva on LinkedIn or email him at shiva(at)routine.co.

Try Routine today

Sign up and get started for free.